Dr. Hannah Ahlheim
Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Germany
Flexible Times? Governing Working Time in the Late 20th Century
Hannah Ahlheim is a Private Lecturer in modern and contemporary history at the University of Göttingen, and recently completed her second book on the history of sleep, sleep sciences and the “economics of sleep” in Germany and the US (1880–1980). She has taught at the Universities of Potsdam and Göttingen and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and received her doctorate in modern history from the University of Bochum with a thesis on the boycott movement against Jewish businesses in Germany (1924–1935). In her thesis she argues that these boycotts were actions initiated from below by local social activists. Based on the testimonies of Jewish Germans, the study shows how the racist category of “Jewishness” entered into everyday economic life and decisively contributed to the “social death” of Jews in the midst of German society.
In general, Ahlheim is interested in the interplay between economics, social practices, and worlds of thought. In her research, she aims to combine the perspectives of economic, social, and cultural history with the history of science and ideas. Her study on the transatlantic history of sleep emphasizes the role of science in the governing of societies and individuals in the 19th and 20th centuries. It explores how closely knowledge about sleep has been linked to cultural interpretations, ideological settings, social change, everyday practices, and economic interests; it reveals how, as a consequence of industrialization, a regular and well-timed good night’s sleep came to be seen as a key factor in the reproduction of the workforce as well as a contribution to a happy and healthy life.
Her research project at re:work is entitled Flexible Times? Governing Work Time in the Late 20th Century. It examines the idea of changing temporal relations in the last decades of the 20th century and seeks to identify if, how, when, and to what extent Western industrialized societies’ temporal structures – and by implication also their underlying power relations and mechanisms of governance – have shifted. By concentrating on the history of night and shift work in Europe and North America, the study links the histories of labor and time to situate them in a new conceptual framework that combines the history of knowledge with approaches informed by social and cultural history.
Der Traum vom Schlaf. Optimierungsphantasien, Widerständigkeit und das Wissen über den Schlaf in Deutschland und den USA (1880–1980). Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag, forthcoming.
Gewalt, Zurichtung, Befreiung? Individuelle »Ausnahmezustände« im 20. Jahrhundert, ed. Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag, 2017.
‘Der Betrieb und das Schlafzimmer. Die »Humanisierung« der Schicht- und Nachtarbeit in der Bundesrepublik der 1970er Jahre’. In Der Betrieb als sozialer und politischer Ort. Studien zu Praktiken und Diskursen in den Arbeitswelten des 20. Jahrhunderts, edited by Knut Andresen, Michaela Kuhnhenne, Jürgen Mittag, and Johannes Platz, 213–30. Bonn: Dietz, 2015.
‘Governing the World of Wakefulness. The Exploration of Alertness, Performance and Brain Activity with the Help of "Stay-Awake-Men“ (1884–1964)’. Anthropology of Consciousnss 24, no. 2 (2013): 117–36.
»Deutsche, kauft nicht bei Juden!« Antisemitismus und politischer Boykott in Deutschland 1924 bis 1935. Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag, 2011.
‘Establishing Antisemitic Stereotypes. Social and Economic Segregation of Jews by Means of Political Boycott in Germany’. The Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook 55 (2010): 149–73.
Last updated: September 01, 2017
Dr. Görkem Akgöz
Central European University, Budapest, Hungary
Developing Factory History as a Research Program: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Industrial Capitalism's Emblematic Workplace
After completing her post-graduate studies at SUNY Binghamton and her doctorate at the University of Amsterdam, Görkem Akgöz taught sociology and history at the Department of Sociology at Hacettepe University in Ankara until February 2017. She is currently a post-doc fellow at the Central European University in the Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology.
Her PhD project focused on the micro-level analysis of working-class formations at a state-owned textile factory in İstanbul between 1932 and 1950. Inspired by the methodological questions she raised in her dissertation, she founded the Factory History Working Group as part of the European Labor History Network in October 2013, which she continues to coordinate. The group will publish a special issue on factory history in Labor History in 2018, and an edited volume on comparative factory histories in Europe. The project on factory history has been supported by a British Academy Newton Advanced Fellowship.
Her project for her re:work fellowship is entitled “Developing Factory History as a Research Program: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Industrial Capitalism’s Emblematic Workplace”. Once looming large in national historiographies as the emblematic locus of industrialization, the industrial plant nurtured the core and soul of capitalism: the relations of production on the shop floor. Few labor historians, however, have tracked developments in one single factory and concentrated on production itself. Moreover, labor historians rarely discuss the methodological implications of their choice of factory for their monographs. Akgöz, in contrast, follows the experience of workers both inside and outside the factory in order to reveal the complex interplay between the immediate experience of labor and the effects of broader developments on working-class identity. Her aim is to transcend the unrealistic boundary between the shop floor and life outside the factory gate.
At re:work, she will be working on three journal articles. The first article is on the shop-floor-level interactions between the new languages and idioms of social citizenship and working-class identity in Turkey in the 1940s. She will also be working on a journal article that will critically review the existing studies that have focused on single factories, and will define factory history as a research agenda that links labor history to fields such as business history, management studies, and urban and community histories. Her final article will be on the (re)construction of gender identity on the shop floor based on the representations of female factory workers in the trade union press of the early Turkish Republic.
‘Citizens on the Shop Floor: Negotiating Class, Citizenship and National Identity in a Turkish State Factory’. Labor History, 2019, 1–12.
with Richard Croucher, and Nicola Pizzolato. ‘Back to the Factory: The Continuing Salience of Industrial Workplace History’. Labor History, 2019, 1–11.
‘Herkesin Sefaletinden Bazılarının Baharına: Sendikaların İlk Yıllarında Kadın İşçiler ve Tarihyazımı [= From the Poverty of All to the Spring of Few: Women Workers and Historiography on the Early Republican Period]’. Toplumsal Tarih 305 (2019).
‘Petitioning as Industrial Bargaining in a Turkish State Factory. The Changing Nature of Petitioning in Early Republican Turkey’. In On the Road to Global Labour History, edited by Karl Heinz Roth, 129–63. Leiden: Brill, 2017.
‘Mutsuz Evlilikten Tehlikeli Flörte. Feminizm, Neoliberalizm ve Toplumsal Hareketler [= From Unhappy Marriage to Dangerous Liaison: Feminism, Neoliberalism and Social Movements]’. Fe Dergi 8, no. 2 (2016): 86–100.
‘İşçi Sınıfı Tarihyazımında İşyeri ve Çalışma Deneyiminin Yeri. Erken Cumhuriyet Dönemi Fabrikalarının Kapısından Girmek [= The Role of Workplace Experience in Working-Class Historiography: Entering the Factories of the Early Republican Period]’. In Tanzimat’tan günümüze Türkiye işçi sınıfı tarihi 1839-2014. Yeni yaklaşımlar yeni alanlar yeni sorunlar, edited by Y. Doğan Çetinkaya and Mehmet Ö. Alkan, 231–53. İstanbul: Tarih Vakfı Yurt Yayınları, 2015.
with Ecehan Balta. ‘Kapitalizmin Krizine Toplumsal Cinsiyet Perspektifinden Bakmak. Analitik bir Çerçeve Önerisi [= Looking at the Crisis of Capitalism from Gender Perspective: A Suggestion for an Analytical Framework]’. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sosyolojik Araştırmalar E-Dergisi, 2015.
‘İşçiler Greve Karşı. 1947 Sendikacılığının İlk Yıllarında Grev Tartışmaları [= Workers against Strike: Debates on the Right to Strike in the Early Years of the 1947 Trade Unionism]’. Mülkiye Dergisi 38, no. 4 (2014): 121–58.
‘Sınıfın Söylemsel Kuruluşu. 1947 Sendikacılığının İlk Yıllarında Milliyetçi ve Anti-Komünist Söylemler [= The Discursive Construction of Class: Nationalist and Anti- Communist Discourses in the First Years of 1947 Trade Union Movement]’. Praksis 35–36 (2014): 61–82.
Last updated: January 23, 2020
Dr. Beate Althammer
Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany
The Borders of the Welfare State: Labour Migration, Social Rights and Expulsion
Phone: +49(0)30 2093 702 32
Beate Althammer is a historian with main research interests in the comparative and transnational history of modern Europe. She studied at the University of Zurich and obtained her doctorate with a scholarship of the research training group “Western Europe in Comparative Historical Perspective” at the University of Trier. She then joined the Collaborative Research Centre 600 “Strangers and Poor People: Changing Patterns of Inclusion and Exclusion from Classical Antiquity to the Present Day”, which was funded by the DFG at the University of Trier from 2002 to 2012. In 2011 and 2013, she held research fellowships at the German Historical Institute London, in 2014 at the German Historical Institute Paris. Since 2015, she is a visiting lecturer at the Leuphana University Lüneburg, and in 2016 she earned her habilitation at the University of Trier with a book on the history of vagabondage in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Germany. In the academic year 2017/18 she was a fellow at re:work, where since November 2018 also her DFG-Project on the “Borders of the Welfare State” is based.
‘Roaming Men, Sedentary Women? The Gendering of Vagrancy Offenses in Nineteenth-Century Europe’. Journal of Social History 51, no. 4 (2018): 736–59.
‘Armut und Auswanderung’. In Karl Marx 1818–1883. Leben. Werk. Zeit. Katalog zur Landesausstellung im Rheinischen Landesmuseum Trier und im Stadtmuseum Simeonstift Trier, 90–97. Darmstadt: Theiss, 2018.
Vagabunden. Eine Geschichte von Armut, Bettel und Mobilität im Zeitalter der Industrialisierung (1815–1933). Essen: Klartext, 2017.
Das Bismarckreich 1871-1890. 2., aktualisierte Auflage. UTB 2995. Paderborn: Schöningh, 2017.
‘Vagabonds in the German Empire. Mobility, Unemployment, and the Transformation of Social Policies (1870-1914)’. In Poverty and Welfare in Modern German History, edited by Lutz Raphael, 78–104. New York, NY: Berghahn, 2017.
with Lutz Raphael, and Tamara Stazic-Wendt, eds. Rescuing the Vulnerable. Poverty, Welfare and Social Ties in Modern Europe. New York, NY: Berghahn, 2016.
Last updated: January 23, 2020
Dr. On Barak
אוניברסיטת תל אביב (Tel Aviv University), Israel
Coalonialism: Energy and Empire before the Age of Oil
On Barak is a social and cultural historian specializing in science and technology in non-western settings. He is a senior lecturer at the Department of Middle Eastern and African History at Tel Aviv University, and the author of two books: On Time: Technology and Temporality in Modern Egypt (University of California Press, 2013), and Names Without Faces: From Polemics to Flirtation in an Islamic Chat-Room (Uppsala University Press, 2006). Prior to joining Tel Aviv University, Barak was a member of the Princeton Society of Fellows and a lecturer at the history department at Princeton University. In 2009, he received a joint PhD in History and Middle Eastern Studies from New York University. He is a co-founder and co-editor of the Social History Workshop, a weekly blog published on the Haaretz website analyzing current Middle Eastern affairs through the lens of contemporary historical research. His interests include timekeeping and temporality, the politics of Middle Eastern archives, the history of heat and cold, and Middle Eastern cinema.
At re:work Barak will complete a book manuscript on multi-sited research into the geopolitical, social, and cultural implications of energy shifts during the long nineteenth century, focusing on the “age of coal” in the Middle East, a region usually associated with oil. The globalization of steam power promoted a universalization of new understandings of the working human body, and new conceptualizations and practices of manual activity. “Free labor” was the most prominent among the latter, and the project seeks to understand how its gradually attained hegemony and form were related to the planetary use of fossil fuels. “Labor” emerged from the age of steam like a diamond from a lump of coal – seemingly symmetrical and untarnished by the historical pressures and forces that molded it. Examining historically both the process and the actual scope of the worldwide demand for this fuel will reveal its multiple asymmetries.
‘Outsourcing. Energy and Empire in the Age of Coal, 1820–1911’. International Journal of Middle East Studies 47, no. 3 (2015): 425–45.
‘Three Watersheds in the History of Energy’. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 34, no. 3 (2014): 440–53.
On Time. Technology and Temporality in Modern Egypt. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2013.
‘Outdating. The Time of “Culture” in Colonial Egypt’. Grey Room 53 (2013): 6–31.
‘Scraping the Surface. The Techno-Politics of Modern Streets in Turn-of-Twentieth-Century Alexandria’. Mediterranean Historical Review 24, no. 2 (2009): 187–205.
Last updated: October 06, 2017
Dr. Alina-Sandra Cucu
Max-Planck-Institut für Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Berlin, Germany
Entangled Worlds of Labour: Socialist-Capitalist Joint Ventures and Generational Imaginaries from West and East
Alina-Sandra Cucu holds a Summa cum laude PhD in sociology and social anthropology from the Central European University, Budapest. Prior to joining re:work, Alina was a postdoctoral fellow at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin, where she was part of a project uncovering various Histories of planning and their mechanisms of knowledge production. Her forthcoming book, Planning Labour: Time and the Foundations of Industrial Socialism in Romania, investigates three entangled issues related to socialist accumulation and central planning as its technical instrument: stabilizing and controlling workers, producing knowledge on the shop floor, and managing the conflicting temporal horizons of socialist planning both in ideological terms and as they unfolded on the ground. At re:work, Alina will focus on an analysis of the Romanian car industry’s integration into global commodity chains between the late 1960s and 2017, with a focus on changes in labor regulation and workers’ life courses in relation to global transformations in the world of production.
Planning Labour. Time and the Foundations of Industrial Socialism in Romania. New York, NY: Berghahn, forthcoming.
‘Engineering Alternative Globalizations from the East’. In Engineering Global History. Experts and Twentieth- Century Political Economy, edited by David Pretel and Lino Camprubí. London: Palgrave Macmillan, forthcoming.
‘The Impossibility of Being Planned. Slackers and Stakhanovites in Early Socialist Romania’. In Labor in State Socialist Europe after 1945. Contributions to Global Labor History, edited by Susan Zimmermann and Marsha Siefert. Budapest: Central European University Press, forthcoming.
‘Why Hegemony Was Not Born in the Factory. Sciences of Labour and Politics of Productivity from a Gramscian Angle’. In Cultural Hegemony in a Scientific World. Gramscian Concepts for the History of Science, edited by Pietro Daniel Omodeo and Massimiliano Badino. Leiden: Brill, forthcoming.
‘Producing Knowledge in Productive Spaces. Ethnography and Planning in Early Socialist Romania’. Economy and Society 43, no. 2 (2014): 211–32.
Last updated: October 06, 2017
Professor Ulrike Freitag
Leibniz-Zentrum Moderner Orient, Berlin, Germany
Jeddah, the Entrance Hall of Mecca: An Urban History, ca. 1850-1950
Ulrike Freitag is director of the Leibniz-Zentrum Moderner Orient (ZMO) and professor of Middle Eastern Studies and history at Freie Universität Berlin. She studied at the Universities of Bonn, Damascus, and Freiburg. After completing and publishing her PhD (in German) in 1991, which focused on 20th century Syrian historiography, she taught at the German Open University in Hagen (1991) and, from 1993 to 2002, at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) at the University of London. During this period, she wrote her second book on Indian Ocean Migrants and State Formation in Hadhramaut between the 1850s and 1967 (published in 2003). In 2002, she obtained her habilitation from the University of Bonn and moved to Berlin to take up her current position.
At ZMO, Freitag deepened her interest in comparative and global history. Together with Achim von Oppen she explored the concept of translocality as a way of better understanding the openings and closures of global history. During the past decade, Freitag has worked on urban history. Using Jeddah as a case study, she has explored themes such as cosmopolitanism and urban violence, co-editing a number of volumes on Middle Eastern urban history. She has also been an observer of current developments in Saudi Arabia and the wider Gulf region.
Her current book project is aimed at writing an urban history of Jeddah from the 1840s to 1947. Since early Islamic times, Jeddah served as the official port of Mecca, and hence as the major arrival point of Muslim pilgrims during their annual pilgrimage. It also developed into a major regional and international port, serving until the 1840s as the official Ottoman customs station for all goods en route from the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean. The population of Jeddah therefore comprised a mixture of Arabs from all parts of the Arab world, but also a diversity of permanent settlers from India, Africa, as well as Central, South and Southeast Asia. The project aims to understand how newcomers – from prominent merchants to slaves – were absorbed by local society, and how this process evolved during the eventful period that began with the Ottoman Empire regaining control over the region in the 1840s, and lasted until the demolition of the city wall at the onset of the Saudi oil boom in 1947.
‘Neuere Tendenzen der Restaurierung „authentischer arabischer Architektur“ am Beispiel Saudi Arabiens’. In Gebaute Geschichte. Historische Authentizität im Stadtraum, edited by Christoph Bernhardt, Martin Sabrow, and Achim Saupe, 182–205. Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag, 2017.
‘Urban Life in Late Ottoman, Hashemite and Early Saudi Jeddah, as Documented in the Photographs in the Snouck Hurgronje Collection in Leiden’. ZMO Working Papers 16 (2016): 12 pp.
‘Urban Space and Prestige. When Festivals Turned Violent in Jeddah, 1880s-1960s’. In Violence and the City in the Modern Middle East, edited by Nelida Fuccaro, 61–74. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2016.
with Philippe Pétriat, and Martin Strohmeier. ‘La Première Guerre mondiale dans la péninsule Arabique… en quête de ses sources’. Arabian Humanities, no. 6 (2016).
‘Symbolic Politics and Urban Violence in Late Ottoman Jeddah’. In Urban Violence in the Middle East. Changing Cityscapes in the Transformation from Empire to Nation State, edited by Ulrike Freitag, Nelida Fuccaro, Nora Lafi, and Claudia Ghrawi, 111–38. New York, NY: Berghahn, 2015.
with Nora Lafi. ‘Introduction. Cosmopolitanism and Conflicts. Changes and Challenges in Ottoman Urban Governance’. In Urban Governance Under the Ottomans. Between Cosmopolitanism and Conflict, edited by Ulrike Freitag and Nora Lafi, 1–16. Milton Park: Routledge, 2014.
Last updated: September 01, 2017
Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, The Netherlands
The Decline in Working Hours and the Rise of Leisure in Western Europe: 1900 – 1950
Oisín Gilmore is an economic historian working on the interrelation of labor history and economic history. He is primarily interested in how labor is organized over time and the role that this plays in economic development. This is a broad interest that considers the way in which labor is organized in the labor process, by the labor market and prevalent property relations, and as an independent political or social force.
Before moving to Berlin to take up his fellowship, he researched for a PhD in economics at the Department of Economics, Econometrics and Finance at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands. While there, he was affiliated to the Groningen Growth and Development Centre (GGDC) and worked on a research project entitled “Pessimism and prosperity: The welfare paradox of interwar Europe in a global perspective.” His role in this project was to consider the decline in working hours in the interwar period in Western Europe. His PhD project involved the development of an entirely new international dataset on the length of the working week. This dataset covers 61 countries over a range of 13 industries between 1900 and 1970. Using this dataset, he was able to address questions regarding a number of issues, such as the rise of leisure time in the West over the last 150 years, the significant economic shocks of the immediate period post World War I, and the causes for the decline in working hours over time.
Prior to his PhD research, he worked as a researcher at the Institute of International and European Affairs, one of Ireland’s leading thinktanks. There he ran the Economics and Finance research program. Before that he conducted postgraduate research at the School of Public Policy at University College London, where he researched the political dynamics of international monetary regimes. He completed his MSc in Economics at the University of Warwick and his BA at Trinity College, Dublin. He also has worked as a Fund Accountant, and from 2016 to 2018 he was a visiting researcher at TRiSS at Trinity College, Dublin.
His work at re:work will carry forward his PhD research. In addition to working on publications, he will extend his research by considering changes in working time both over a longer time frame and in the contemporary period.
Dr. Michael Hoffmann
Universität zu Köln, Cologne, Germany
Industry, Inequality and Armed Conflict in Western Nepal
Michael Hoffmann received his PhD in social anthropology from the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) in 2012. After completing his PhD entitled Patronage, Exploitation and the Invisible Hand of Mao, based on 18 months of ethnographic fieldwork in far-western Nepal, he joined the Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology as a research fellow (2012-15) and worked as a senior researcher at the Global South Studies Center and the Institute for Cultural and Social Anthropology at the University of Cologne (2015-17). During this time he conducted a range of anthropological fieldwork projects largely focused on industrial labor in post-conflict Nepal. His academic work has been published in numerous prestigious international journals including Critique of Anthropology, Focaal and Contributions to Indian Sociology. His first monograph, entitled The Partial Revolution: Labour, Social Movements and the Invisible Hand of Mao in Western Nepal, is scheduled for publication in January 2018 with Berghahn Books. The book examines the far-western region of Kailali in the aftermath of Nepal’s Maoist insurgency, critically analyzing the ways in which revolutionary political mobilization affects social relations – and often unexpectedly clashes with the movement’s ideological goals.
While in residence at re:work, Michael will work on his second book project, Industry, Inequality and Armed Conflict in Western Nepal. This work builds on his previous research interests, which include bonded and industrial labor and revolutionary political mobilizations, and explores two main themes: Firstly, it describes how formerly bonded laborers experience industrial work in western Nepal; secondly, it explores how the broader revolutionary context affects the textures of everyday industrial labor relations and labor politics and suggests – contrary to the claims of leftist optimists – that Maoist revolutions do not straightforwardly end exploitation by dominant castes. Instead, Michael’s combined ethnographic work aims to show that Maoism influences Nepal’s working classes in ways that are complex and often unpredictable.
The Partial Revolution. Labour, Social Movements and the Invisible Hand of Mao in Western Nepal. New York, NY: Berghahn, 2018.
‘From Casual to Permanent Work. Maoist Unionists and the Regularization of Contract Labor in the Industries of Western Nepal’. In Industrial Labor on the Margins of Capitalism. Precarity, Class, and the Neoliberal Subject, edited by Chris Hann and Jonathan Parry, 336–54. New York NY: Berghahn, 2018.
‘Rebels and Revolutionaries. Urban Mobilizations of the Kamaiya Movement in Post-Conflict, Western Nepal’. In Worldwide Mobilizations. Class Struggles and Urban Commoning, edited by Don Kalb and Massimiliano Mollona. New York, NY: Berghahn, 2018.
‘Unfree Labour After the Maoist Revolution in Western Nepal’. Contributions to Indian Sociology 51, no. 2 (2017): 139–62.
‘In the Shadows of the Maoist Revolution. On the Role of the “People”s War’ in Facilitating the Occupation of Symbolic Space in Western Nepal’. Critique of Anthropology 35, no. 4 (2015): 389–406.
‘A Symbiotic Coexistence. Nepal’s Maoist Movement and Labour Unions in an Urban Municipality in Post-Conflict Far-Western Tarai’. Journal of South Asian Development 9, no. 3 (2014): 213–34.
‘ Red Salute at Work. Brick Factory Work in Postconflict Kailali, Western Nepal’. Focaal 2014, no. 70 (2014): 67–80.
Professor Preben Kaarsholm
Roskilde Universitet, Denmark
From Slaves to Labourers: Changing Networks of Servitude and Transnational Working Lives in the Western Indian Ocean
Preben Kaarsholm is professor of global and international development studies at Roskilde University. His research interests have shifted from romantic anti-capitalism and anti-imperialist movements in Europe to settler states and postcolonial development in Southern Africa. He has published widely on violence and democratic struggles, and on moral debates and local politics in urban slum settlements. In recent years, his research has focused on the Indian Ocean, on transnational Islamic movements, and on networks of labor migration and control. He has extensive experience in doing collaborative research with universities in Africa and India, and is a coordinator of the AEGIS collaborative research group on Africa in the Indian Ocean.
Kaarsholm’s re:work research addresses the transmutations in form of unfree labor recruited across the Western Indian Ocean from slavery to indentured labor to migrant and contemporary forms of contracted labor. His research is concerned in particular with relations between South Asia, the African Indian Ocean islands, and Southern Africa, and investigates both the sending and the receiving end of recruitment, the changing frameworks of regulation within which labor was sourced, as well as the shifts in self-understanding articulated by laborers and their relatives away from subalternity to aspiring citizenship.
‘From Abolition of the Slave Trade to Protection of Immigrants. Danish Colonialism, German Missionaries, and the Development of Ideas of Humanitarian Governance from the Early Eighteenth to the Nineteenth Century’. Atlantic Studies 17, no. 3 (2020): 348–74.
with Bodil Folke Frederiksen. ‘Amaoti and Pumwani. Studying Urban Informality in South Africa and Kenya’. African Studies 78, no. 1 (2019): 51–73.
‘Indian Ocean Networks and the Transmutations of Servitude. The Protector of Indian Immigrants and the Administration of Freed Slaves and Indentured Labourers in Durban in the 1870s’. Journal of Southern African Studies 42, no. 3 (2016): 443–61.
‘Islam, Secularist Government, and State–Civil Society Interaction in Mozambique and South Africa Since 1994’. Journal of Eastern African Studies 9, no. 3 (2015): 468–87.
‘Zanzibaris or Amakhuwa? Sufi Networks in South Africa, Mozambique and the Indian Ocean’. The Journal of African History 55, no. 2 (2014): 191–210.
‘Transnational Islam and Public Sphere Dynamics in KwaZulu-Natal. Rethinking South Africa’s Place in the Indian Ocean World’. Africa 81, no. 1 (2011): 108–31.
Last updated: August 3, 2020.
Professor Bridget Kenny
University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
Servicing a Racial Regime: Johannesburg and Baltimore Women Shop Assistants and the Politics of 'Publics', 1940s-70s
Bridget Kenny is an Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa. She works on labour, gender and consumption with specific focus on service work, precarious employment, and political subjectivity. Her book Retail Worker Politics, Race and Consumption in South Africa: Shelved in the Service Economy (Palgrave Macmillan) is forthcoming in 2017. She also co-edited the volumeWalmart in the Global South: Local Practices, State Regulations, and Labor Politics in the Time of Transnational Capital(with Carolina Bank Muñoz and Antonio Stecher)forthcoming in 2017 (University of Texas Press-Austin). She is currently on the Editorial Board of the Global Labour Journal and African Studies.She is the President of Research Committee 44-Labour Movements of the International Sociological Association (2014-2018). She has worked with the South African labour movement for twenty-five years.
For the re:work fellowship she will be working on her project entitled, “Servicing a Racial Regime: Johannesburg and Baltimore women shop assistants and the politics of ‘publics’, 1940s – 1970s”, based on over seven years of archival and interview research in the US and SA. This project seeks to centre a comparative study of two segregated cities around women’s labour for how we understand everyday political spaces. The project examines how women’s (racialised) labour has been regulated both formally in law and discursively through hegemonic notions of respectability in the two places. It tracks differences in the constitution of political publics in shops and city streets. The labour of service focuses attention on the articulations of class and race, life-cycle and home life, affect and culture, market and the workplace, and capital and state relations. Specifically, the project details such sites as the semi-publics of lifts, the relation of the law to private property and retail spaces, the transnational connections of retailers and their constitutive roles within urban space, and the relationship of white to black women’s labour and politics. Time at re:work will be spent working on chapters toward a book length manuscript.
‘Servicing “Intimate Publics”. Johannesburg and Baltimore Department Stores in the 1960s’. Safundi 21, no. 2 (2 April 2020): 115–39.
Retail Worker Politics, Race and Consumption in South Africa. Shelved in the Service Economy. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018.
‘Affect and the State. Precarious Workers, the Law and the Promise of Friendship’. In Ties That Bind. Race and the Politics of Friendship in South Africa, edited by Shannon Walsh and Jon Soske, 166–91. Johannesburg: Wits University Press, 2016.
‘The Regime of Contract in South African Retailing. A History of Race, Gender, and Skill in Precarious Labor’. International Labor and Working-Class History 89 (2016): 20–39.
‘Retail, the Service Worker and the Polity. Attaching Labour and Consumption’. Critical Arts 29, no. 2 (2015): 199–217.
‘Servicing a Racial Regime. Gender, Race and the “Public” in Department Stores in Baltimore, MD and Johannesburg, South Africa, 1940-1970’. In Race and Retail. Consumption Across the Color Line, edited by Mia Bay and Ann Fabian, 99–122. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2015.
‘Reconstructing the Political? Mall Committees and South African Precarious Retail Workers’. Labour, Capital and Society / Travail, Capital et Société 44, no. 1 (2011): 44–69.
Last updated: June 4, 2020
Dr. Tim Kerig
Universität Leipzig, Germany
A Bread, a Shirt, an Axe and Travelling a Hundred Miles: Packing a Basket of Commodities from 10.000 BC to the Present
Tim Kerig is a lecturer of prehistoric archaeology at the University of Leipzig. He studied prehistoric archaeology, geology, and Quaternary ecology, as well as philosophy at the Universities of Tübingen and Copenhagen, and earned his PhD from the University of Cologne in 2004 with a thesis on the Neolithic period (Hanau-Mittelbuchen: Siedlung und Erdwerk der bandkeramischen Kultur. Materialvorlage – Chronologie – Versuch einer handlungstheoretischen Interpretation). He was a scientific trainee at the Württemberg State Museum, and has both headed and internationally curated large-scale excavations. He has held teaching positions at the Universities of Tübingen, Mainz, Cologne, Bonn, Bochum, Leipzig, as well as the Academy of Fine Arts in Stuttgart, and University College London. From 2003 to 2013, he was speaker of the ‘Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology’ working group of the Deutsche Altertumsverbände, and speaker of AG ARCH, the working group on data analysis in the field of archaeology belonging to the Data Science Society (GfKl). From 2007 to 2010 he received funding from the DFG for a temporary position as principal investigator, researching the ‘Econometrics of the Central European Neolithic’. In 2010, he organized an international conference entitled ‘Economic Archaeology: From structure to performance’. From 2010 to 2014, he was an ERC post-doctoral member of the EUROEVOL project at University College London, and from 2014 to 2016 a post-doctoral member of the DFG Research Training Group (RTG 1878) ‘Archaeology of Pre-Modern Economies’. He was awarded his habilitation in 2016 for his study of Neolithic work and its reverberations with demography, technology and cultural transmission (Einfache und komplexe Wirtschaften: Studien zur Urgeschichte des Faktors Arbeit im mitteleuropäischen Neolithikum). His research interests include the Neolithic period, prehistoric art and the history and theory of European archaeology; he is also working on establishing the foundations of a quantitative, ethnologically informed economic archaeology. His positions are analytic and part of a project contributing to evolutionary archaeology.
Tim Kerig’s current projects focus on Supply and demand in prehistory? Economics of Neolithic mining in NW Europe (with S. Shennan and M. Parker-Pearson), 12,000 years of decision-making: Geoarchaeology and Economic archaeology in the Western Zagros (with T. Helms), and on identifying the effort needed to cultivate cereals (Arbeitsaufwand für Getreidenahrung – ab 12,500 vor heute). He will use his time at re:work to assess whether the methodological approaches developed in previous projects can be applied to other industries.
with Kevan Edinborough, Sean Downey, and Stephen Shennan. ‘A Radiocarbon Chronology of European Flint Mines Suggests a Link to Population Patterns’. In Connecting Networks. Characterising Contact by Measuring Lithic Exchange in the European Neolithic, edited by Tim Kerig and Stephen Shennan, 116–63. Oxford: Archaeopress, 2015.
with Stephen Shennan, and Enrico R. Crema. ‘Isolation-by-Distance, Homophily, and “Core” vs. “Package” Cultural Evolution Models in Neolithic Europe’. Evolution & Human Behavior 36, no. 2 (2015): 103–9.
‘Wirtschaft. Struktur und Leistung in frühen Gesellschaften’. In Theorie in der Archäologie. Zur jüngeren Diskussion in Deutschland, edited by Manfred K. H. Eggert and Ulrich Veit, 139–90. Münster: Waxmann, 2013.
‘Grahame Clark und die mitteleuropäische Archäologie. Eine vergleichende Rezeptionsgeschichte’. Ethnographisch-Archäologische Zeitschrift 52, no. 1 (2011): 83–103.
‘„…und Eva spann…“ Zur Urgeschichte der geschlechtlichen Arbeitsteilung in arbeitswissenschaftlicher Perspektive’. In Von wirtschaftlicher Macht und militärischer Stärke. Beiträge zur archäologischen Geschlechterforschung, edited by Jana Esther Fries and Ulrike Rambuscheck, 17–36. Münster: Waxmann, 2011.
Hanau-Mittelbuchen. Siedlung und Erdwerk der bandkeramischen Kultur. Materialvorlage - Chronologie - Versuch einer handlungstheoretischen Interpretation. Bonn: Habelt, 2008.
Last updated: October 17, 2017
Dr. David Mayer
Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis (IISG), Amsterdam, The Netherlands
‘Work’ and ‘Words’ – Exploring the Diversity of Labour Relations Through Movement Periodicals in 'Macroscopic' Perspective
David Mayer, born in 1976, is a historian specializing in transnational social history. From 2014 to 2016, he acted as executive editor of the International Review of Social History, and completed his PhD thesis on the history of Marxist debates on historiography in Latin America during the ‘long 1960s’ (University of Vienna) in 2011. He has spent extensive periods researching in Latin America.
In 2004, he translated Immanuel Wallerstein’s The Modern World-System III into German. Between 2007 and 2011, he worked as a research assistant at the Department of Social and Economic History at the University of Vienna. Recently, he has been a research fellow at CeMIS – Centre for Modern Indian Studies at the University of Göttingen.
His main research interests include labor history, the history of social movements, the history of historiography, the history of Marxism and left-wing intellectuals, the politics of history, and digital humanities methods. Accordingly, he has published on topics including the history of Marxist historiography, 1968 from a global history perspective, the Communist International in Latin America, the transnational dimension of social movements, and the political uses of history among the Latin American left.
He is currently a honorary fellow at the International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam. Since 2013, he has been serving as the vice-president of the ITH – International Conference of Labour and Social History (ith.or.at).
During his stay at re:work he will launch a new research project focused on exploring from a ‘macroscopic’ perspective historical periodicals of labor‐related movements. Linking ‘work’ and ‘words’, his project will reframe one of the central questions of current labor history – the diversity and co-existence of historical labor relations – by looking at how they are mediated by the discourses of labor-related movements. To this end, a defined corpus of periodical literature will be analyzed by drawing on methods recently developed in the Digital Humanities. This corpus of periodicals produced by labor-related movements will be built for several world-regions and selected time periods, allowing for comparisons and the analysis of transfers.
‘Coming to Terms with the Past, Getting a Grip on the Future – Manfred Kossok’s Interventions into Historiographical Debates About Latin America During the Radicalized 1960s’. Review. A Journal of the Fernand Braudel Center, no. 38 (forthcoming): 1/2.
with Rossana Barragán. ‘Latin America and the Caribbean’. In Handbook Global History of Work, edited by Karin Hofmeester and Marcel van der Linden, 95–121. De Gruyter Oldenbourg, 2017.
with Paulo Fontes, and Alexandre Fortes, eds. Brazilian Labour History – New Perspectives in Global Context [= Special Issue International Review of Social History, 62 (S25)], 2017.
‘À la fois influente et marginale. L’Internationale communiste et l’Amérique latine’. Translated by Jean-Léon Muller. Monde(s). Histoire, Espaces, Relations, no. 10 (2016): 109–28.
‘Mit Marx im Gepäck. Lateinamerikanische Vorläufer im Versuch, (post)koloniale Bedingungen zu denken’. In Marx und der globale Süden, edited by Felix Wemheuer, 145–169. Köln: PapyRossa Verlag, 2016.
with Ad Knotter, eds. Migration and Ethnicity in Coalfield History. Global Perspectives [= Special Issue International Review of Social History, 60 (S23)], 2016.
Last updated: October 18, 2017
Dr. Benedetta Rossi
University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
The Rise of African Abolitionism
Benedetta Rossi is Reader (Associate Professor) in African Studies at the University of Birmingham (UK), where she teaches African history and anthropology. Her research focuses on African history and global labor history, and the history of slavery and emancipation in Africa in the 19th and 20th centuries. Her first monograph, From Slavery to Aid: Politics, Labour, and Ecology in the Nigerian Sahel, 1800-2000 (Cambridge University Press, 2015) focused on the transformations of unfree labor in the region of Tahoua in the Republic of Niger (Sahara-Sahel). She has published articles on labor migration, the emancipation strategies of persons of slave descent, and the impacts of foreign ‘development aid’ on African workers.
Her project at re:work focuses on the rise of African abolitionism, and will feed into her second book, Slavery and Emancipation in Twentieth Century Africa (contracted to Cambridge University Press). The project explores the ways in which African slaves and slave owners historically related to European abolitionism, and how this history shapes contemporary African anti-slavery movements. It asks when, how, and why (if at all) enslaved and free Africans began to challenge the legitimacy of slavery as an institution, and when and how African abolitionism developed.
‘Freedom Under Scrutiny. Epilogue’. Journal of Global Slavery 2, no. 1–2 (2017): 185–94.
‘Dependence, Unfreedom and Slavery in Africa. Towards an Integrated Analysis’. Africa 86, no. 3 (2016): 571–90.
From Slavery to Aid. Politics, Labour, and Ecology in the Nigerien Sahel, 1800-2000. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2015.
‘African Post-Slavery. A History of the Future’. The International Journal of African Historical Studies 48, no. 2 (2015): 303–24.
‘Migration and Emancipation in West Africa’s Labour History. The Missing Links’. Slavery & Abolition 35, no. 1 (2014): 23–46.
Reconfiguring Slavery. West African Trajectories, ed. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2009.
Last updated: September 01, 2017
Dr. Caroline Rothauge
Katholische Universität Eichstätt-Ingolstadt, Germany
Eat – Work – Sleep? Temporal Assumptions and Practices in the German Kaiserreich
Dr Caroline Rothauge studied cultural studies, modern and contemporary history and journalism at the Universities of Lüneburg and Santiago de Compostela. Prior to joining the International Graduate Centre for the Study of Culture (GCSC) at the University of Gießen, she trained as an editor in the publishing sector. After earning her PhD in modern history, she worked as a postdoctoral researcher, then as an assistant lecturer at the chair of modern history II at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. In April 2015, she joined the Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt as an assistant lecturer at the chair of modern and contemporary history.
Her PhD thesis drew above all on audiovisual sources from Spain and analysed the dynamics of processes of cultural memorialization in contemporary pluralistic societies. Two aspects from this work continue to inform her current research: the interrelationships between collective remembrance and foreign policies on the one hand, and representations of history in pop cultural ‘quality TV’ productions on the other. She is currently continuing her habilitation project entitled ‘Zeit im Alltag’ (‘Time in everyday life’), which uses a transnational perspective to understand how people experienced and dealt with (pluri-)temporality in the German Kaiserreich around 1900. It is driven by an understanding of time as a category that people construct to provide them with orientation – and which therefore has to be historicized.
At re:work, Caroline Rothauge will concentrate on analysing the relationship between time and work in the German Kaiserreich around 1900; this will allow her to focus on two aspects in particular: firstly, the conceptions, shifts, and implementations of working time regimes, and, secondly, the interrelationships between work and ‘non-work’, or, in other words, between labour and leisure. Areas that interest her in this respect include food, sleep and physical activity. Concepts of time use that were marked as alien (fremd) take on a significant role in structuring the temporal organization of everyday life in the German Kaiserreich. ‘Americanization’ plays a central role here, as do experiences of time in the colonies.
‘Es ist (an der) Zeit. Zum temporal turn in der Geschichtswissenschaft’. Historische Zeitschrift, submitted.
‘The Present. An “Unknown Time” in the German Kaiserreich around 1900’. In The Fascination with Unknown Time, edited by Sibylle Baumbach, Lena Hennsingsen, and Klaus Oschema. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, forthcoming.
‘Populärkultur, Zeitgeschichte und Erinnerungskulturen. Franquismus als ‚Mad Circus‘?’ In Populärkultur, edited by Sabine Friedrich and Dirk Niefanger. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, forthcoming.
Zweite Republik, spanischer Bürgerkrieg und frühe Franco-Diktatur in Film und Fernsehen. Erinnerungskulturen und Geschichtsdarstellungen in Spanien zwischen 1996 und 2011. Göttingen: V & R Unipress, 2014.
‘Remembering the Spanish Republican Exile. An Audiovisual Return’. In Panic and Mourning. The Cultural Work of Trauma, edited by Daniela Agostinho and Adriana Martins, 40–59. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2012.
Last updated: September 01, 2017
Dr. Juliane Schiel
Universität Zürich, Switzerland
Slave Labour in the Venetian Empire (1350-1450)
Dr Juliane Schiel is a reader at the Institute of History at the University of Zürich. Her teaching and research focuses on Mediterranean practices of enslavement and other forms of dependent labour in European pre-modernity. She studied at the Universities of Heidelberg, Oxford, and Berlin, and received her PhD from Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin for her comparative work on European representations and interpretations of the Mongolian and Osman empires.
During her time at re:work, Juliana Schiel will concentrate on slavery in the Venetian maritime empire. She intends to develop a social history from below that will span Tana, Crete, the eastern Adriatic Sea and Veneto, and to map different moments of enslavement, the slaves’ working conditions, as well as the possibilities they had to achieve freedom. These microhistories will help expand traditional conceptions of slavery and contribute to an understanding of social dependencies and unfree labour relations in pre-modern Europe.
with Christian De Vito, and Matthias van Rossum, eds. Shifts in Labour Relations. How Slaving Practices (Dis)Appeared, Transformed and Resurged over Time and Space [= Special Issue Annales], under review.
with Brigitta Bernet, and Jakob Tanner, eds. Arbeit in der Erweiterung [= Historische Anthropologie, 24 (2)], 2016.
with Doris Bulach, eds. europas sklaven [= Werkstatt Geschichte, 66/67], 2015.
with Stefan Hanß, and Claudia Schmid, eds. Mediterranean Slavery Revisited (500-1800). Neue Perspektiven Auf Mediterrane Sklaverei (500-1800). Zürich: Chronos, 2014.
Last updated: September 01, 2017
Dr. des. Daniel Tödt
Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany
Between the Decks and Docks of Imperial Port Cities: Temporary Work and Changing Life Courses of Africans in Marseille and Antwerp (1880s-1960s)
Daniel Tödt teaches African history at the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Previously, as a postdoctoral fellow, he was a member of the International Graduate Research Program “The World in the City: Metropolitanism and Globalization from the 19th Century to the Present”. He studied European ethnology, African studies, and political science. His dissertation at the Humboldt-Universität on African elite formation in Belgian Congo was awarded the ZEIT-Stiftung Prize of the German Historical Association (VHD). His main research interests are the social history of colonialism, global urban history, and (post)colonial migration.
His research project at re:work traces the eventful biographies of African dockers and seafarers in Antwerp and Marseilles through their urban and maritime networks. It analyzes how they moved back and forth between different fields of labor: legal, illegal, non-work, and casual labor. For African dockers and seafarers, the imperial port city was a gateway promising mobility and access to networks, but at the same time, they were also places of immobility, disconnection, and confinement. While stressing the temporariness of their personal and work biographies, the project illuminates the multitude of fleeting opportunities for making a living in a complex, mutually constitutive, yet asymmetric imperial world. The consistently subaltern status of these colonial subjects in port cities provides an avenue for interrogating the degree of mutual influence, horizontal connectedness, and vertical coercion within Empires of work.
‘Making Second Imperial Cities: Modern Ports, Colonial Connectivity and Maritime Globalization’. Moderne Stadtgeschichte 2 (2019): 115–39.
Elitenbildung und Dekolonisierung. Die Évolués in Belgisch-Kongo 1944-1960. Kritische Studien zur Geschichtswissenschaft, Band 228. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2018.
‘Vers une histoire culturelle des élites africaines - Parcours d’une recherche inachevée’. In Archives Afrique Europe. Besoins? Collaborations? Avenirs? La RDC, le Rwanda, le Burundi et la Belgique, edited by Pierre-Alain Tallier and Sabine Eyenga-Cornelis, 141–55. Bruxelles: Algemeen Rijksarchief, 2013.
‘Les Noirs Perfectionnés. Cultural Embourgeoisement in Belgian Congo during the 1940s and 1950s’. Working Papers Des Sonderforschungsbereiches 640 4 (2012): 1–23.
Vom Planeten Mars. Rap in Marseille und das Imaginäre der Stadt. Münster: LIT, 2011.
Last updated: Febuary 6, 2020
Prof. Michael Zeuske
Universität zu Köln, Germany
Michael Zeuske is professor of Iberian and Latin-American history at the University of Cologne (UoC) and PI of the Global South Studies Center (GSSC) at UoC as well as PI of the Bonn Center for Dependency and Slavery Studies (BCDSS) at the University of Bonn. Educated at the universities of Leipzig and Rostock, he obtained his two German doctorates (PhD and habilitation) at Leipzig in 1984 and 1991, respectively, with works on revolutionary elites and hegemonial groups in Latin-American independence movements. He taught as professor at the University of Leipzig (1992–1993) and as professor at the University of Cologne. In 2007 he was a research fellow at the Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance, and Abolition (Yale University, New Haven). In 2015, his research took him to Beijing, where he was a fellow at the BeiDa University (Peking University).
Zeuske is the author of 20 monographs and more than 200 articles. He is co-editor of the journal Comparativ – Zeitschrift für Globalgeschichte und vergleichende Gesellschaftsforschung (Leipzig) as well as of HiN (Humboldt Studies), and co-editor of several series of books.
In 1993 or so, he began working on documenting life histories and (self )representations of the enslaved during slavery (not to be confused with slave narratives after slavery), supplementing this research on life histories from around 2005 onward with studies on the voices on the slaves and deportees of the Atlantic slave trade (face-to-face situations between captains, factors, ship surgeons, etc. and the enslaved). His research focus is mainly on the 19th century “after the abolition” (especially following the formal abolition of the Atlantic slave trade, 1794 and 1808–1840, and slavery, 1794, 1834–38, and 1888). During this period, slave smugglers, factors, and captains, whom Zeuske calls “Monte Cristos of the hidden Atlantic”, abducted another 2–3 million people from Africa, and took them primarily to Brazil and Cuba. On land, and above all in Brazil, the USA, and Cuba, the period from 1800 to 1888 marked a phase in which slavery was exposed to an extremely dynamic wave of modernization (conceptualized as Second Slavery). The capital and much of the funding that drove Second Slavery in the Americas (Cuba, Brazil, the USA, but partly also Puerto Rico, Suriname, Guyana, Martinique, Guadeloupe) was generated by illegal trade between the West African coasts as well as with Mozambique between 1808 and 1874, and by legal domestic slave trade, above all in the USA and Brazil and partially in Cuba between 1808 and 1888. This capital was channeled back and forth between Africa and the Americas through the infrastructures of violence that extended from Africa across the Atlantic (the Hidden Atlantic) to the Americas.
During his time at re:work, he will finish a book on the significance and role of the Hidden Atlantic for the development and stabilization of Second Slavery, especially in Cuba, that also considers the links between the Caribbean, the southern US, and Bahia in terms of the smuggling carried out by factors, captains, and slave traders.
Sklaverei. Eine Menschheitsgeschichte. Stuttgart: Reclam, 2018.
with Vicent Sanz. Millars. Espai i Història. Vol. XLII/1, 2017.
Sklavenhändler, Negreros und Atlantikkreolen. Eine Weltgeschichte des Sklavenhandels im atlantischen Raum. Berlin: De Gruyter Oldenbourg, 2015.
Amistad. A Hidden Network of Slavers and Merchants. Translated by Steven Rendall. American edition. Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2014.
Handbuch Geschichte der Sklaverei: eine Globalgeschichte von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2013.
Simón Bolívar: History and Myth. Translated by Steven Rendall. Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2012.
Last updated: March 2, 2018